Hi everyone and thank you for joining us. So, to start off I’d like to take this opportunity to introduce you to Hofstra University – a regionally accredited institution that was founded in 1935. Our bricks and mortar campus is located in Hempstead, New York. We are the only University to host three consecutive presidential debates in 2008, 2012, and 2016. Our Master of Arts and LL.M. programs are offered through Hofstra University’s Maurice A. Deane School of Law, which we often refer to as Hofstra Law in conjunction with the Gitenstien Institute for Health Law and Policy. Hofstra Law is an American Bar Association – approved law school with more than 11,000 alumni in 49 states and 27 countries. What really sets Hofstra apart is that we believe in the value of an education steeped in legal theory as well as practical experience.
The Master of Arts and Master of Laws are essentially one program with two different tracks – one for lawyers and one for non-lawyers. The Master of Arts program is for those who want to become thought leaders and experts in the field of health law and policy without actually becoming an attorney. This program will help prepare students to navigate and predict changes, understand the language of the law, ask educated questions, and build confidence. The LL.M. program offers law students an opportunity to specialize in the rapid growth area of health law and policy, enabling our students to distinguish themselves, define their career, create new opportunities and stay relevant in today’s fast-changing workplace. What makes our programs unique is that our curriculum covers subjects that are current and trending which allows our students to apply their learning immediately. While we want to make sure your education is current, we also prepare you for what may lie ahead in the ever-changing and complex landscape of health law and policy.
What our students tend to love the most about our program is that it’s made up of a diverse group of students from a variety of professional backgrounds, which creates a learning environment that stimulates growth and creates vast networking opportunities.
So here, you’ll see a list of courses that make up our fixed curriculum. The first two prerequisite courses Intro to the American Legal System and Intro to Health Law are for the Master of Art students only. These courses are designed to introduce non-lawyers to the creation, interpretation, and application of the American lawmaking process, as well as examine a variety of legal problems arising at the American health care system. Since most of our M.A. population does not have legal experience, these courses will help to give you confidence in your understanding of how the legal system works and allow you to become familiar with the language of law in order to successfully grasp the concepts in the core curriculum.
So, as we move into the core curriculum we’ve got our Medicare and Medicaid Law course which is an overview of the two most important government-funded health care programs. Students will review its history, purpose, expectation and evolution.
Bioethics and the Law explores contemporary problems involving law, medicine and ethics such as patients’ rights, responsibilities of physicians and the interests of society.
Laws of Medical Product Discovery, Development, and Commercialization explores the influence of law and regulation in the United States and other jurisdictions on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.
Business Transactions in Health Care explores several of the most prevalent commercial business transactions in the health care industry today including partnerships, mergers and acquisitions.
Public Health Law Policy and ethics will focus on the application of law to public health and on the ethical parameters of that application.
Of course, our newest course the ABA statutory interpretation which Professor Czerwonka will dive in to shortly
Our Representing Health Care Providers course is intended to acquaint students with the wide variety of federal and state legal and regulatory issues which health care attorneys encounter in day-to-day practice.
Healthcare Compliance explores topics such as data privacy and security, state regulation using New York State and California as models, and creating a culture of compliance within any health care related organization.
The final course our students take is a capstone course. This is a 15-week, five-credit course. The first half is spent summarizing and reinforcing the concepts learned throughout the program and then the focus will shift to identifying problems encountered in the health care system and formulating solutions to such problems in the form of a capstone project.
Detailed course descriptions can be found in the program brochure which can be accessed through the website or by link in any email sent to you by the program, Claudette, or myself.
Thank you, Anne. So now that we know a little bit more about the program, I want to highlight our new course – the ADA Statutory Interpretation. So I’m going to invite Professor Czerwonka to take over and take us through what the course is about. So Professor, welcome. If you could please further introduce yourself and share what you do for and outside of the course as well.
Sure, thank you very much for having me and thank you everyone for making time today to attend. I will repeat a good afternoon or good evening depending on where in the world you happen to be at this moment. As was mentioned, before my name is Professor Christopher Czerwonka. I’m an adjunct here at the law school, and a senior fellow at the Gitenstein Institute where I handle a Legal Mapping Project. Just a quick overview on that, what we have done is looked up every single advanced care planning law in the country from date of first enactment ever in each jurisdiction, all the way up to the present, and actually gone in and created a database where you can track the changes over time. So that has been a project that has been about a year and a half to two years in the making.
In addition to that, obviously I teach in the Health Law and Policy programs here. And the ADA course is a real passion for me. It’s sort of my baby if you will, in the sense that I have been teaching disability law in one form or another for the past six or seven years at various conferences and schools, and now in the context of this course and so I’m thrilled to have been given the opportunity to develop this new course because, for the reasons you will hear, I think the subject matter is important and I think you will get a lot out of it learning the skill of statutory interpretation through that particular vehicle.
Now, why statutory interpretation in general? Well, successful lawyers and health care professionals really have to understand how laws are interpreted and applied. You can’t begin to have a discussion about compliance with the law unless you know how the administrative agencies and courts and advocates are going to interpret it. Now, those of you who have been to law school may have picked up some skill in statutory interpretation, in the context of your legal training and in your practice careers but the ADA is very unique in the sense that as a civil rights law, you’ve got several different sources of interpretation that are all sort of coming at you at once. You have administrative agencies like the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) that are making regulations that basically specify to employers what it is they have to do and specify to the courts which standards need to be applied, and you also have the courts themselves and the executive branch. Sometimes we will get presidential interpretations or executive orders that sort of sketch out the edges of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Now, I don’t know how many of you have experience in the federal sector, but if you heard me say that and you work or the federal government or rather have worked with the federal government, you’re probably sitting there thinking, at least if you have any experience with the Americans with Disabilities Act “well wait a minute, I thought that ADA didn’t apply to the federal government, I thought that was the Rehabilitation Act of 1973” and the answer, is you’re right except that the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as amended tells the people who are reading it that really the standard to apply is that which would be found if we were going with the ADA. So whether the ADA applies in your workplace or unique situation or not, it’s something that you need to know.
Now, one of the other sort of nice things about the American Disabilities Act in a context of a program like this, is that unlike a lot of civil rights law or a lot of law generally that deals with communicating people’s rights and civil liberties, the ADA has a really clear health connection. Now the connection should be sort of intuitively obvious given the fact that we are dealing with disabilities which are by nature, medical conditions but some things that you might not have considered are the extent to which
whatever medical evidence you’re going to be marshalling is persuasive to a finder of fact and depending on how narrowly or broadly you construe statute, and we’ll talk about interpretive modalities in the context of the course, depending on that, you could get a vastly different outcome depending on how well you marshal that evidence. If the court is persuaded, for example, that Disability X should be covered, they may be persuaded based on the strength of that medical evidence rather than on any particular statutory mention of the condition.
Why do I say that? Well it’s because the ADA doesn’t provide a list of conditions that qualify as disabilities. All it says is it has got to substantially limit a major life activity. So, it leaves open a couple of doors for interpretation. What is a substantial limitation? What is a major life activity? And what qualifies as a condition. To the extent that those facts are in dispute, the medical evidence can be really, really important and has a key role for health care providers and others involved in the health care delivery system in making sure that its mandates and guidelines are enforced.
The other sort of unique things about the Americans with Disabilities Act is most laws, you could fairly say, relies on fact and sensitive inquiry. But as a matter of statutory and also as a matter of the way that the policies that surround the ADA are written, this is sort of a unique statute in just how broad the amount of latitude is and how individual that inquiry has to be. In other words, one person with a particular medical condition might be found to have a disability, and another person with that same medical condition with a different clinical presentation might not be found to have that disability. And so, courts are given really wide latitude to determine how much weight to accord the particular evidence involved.
Now let me very quickly give you a list of objectives that I expect that you will be able to meet by the end of my course.
By the end of the course students will be able to
- Explain the fundamental principles of statutory interpretation
- Participate meaningfully in discussions regarding legislative intent
- Identify areas of tension between judicial rulings and statutory text
- Trace the evolution of doctrinal interpretation of the ADA over time
- Apply the fundamentals of statutory interpretation to a complex hypothetical scenario
Now, what do I mean by these things about legislative intent in areas of tension between judicial rulings and statutory texts and doctrinal evolution. As you’ll see when we get to when you get to the substance of the course, the courts have sort of been all over the place with the Americans with Disabilities Act ever since its inception. There is a line of cases all the way from the early 1990s up through about 2003 which accorded one sort of singular judicial interpretation to the meaning of the statutes. But in 2008 Congress went in and said “no”. Both the agencies that have been interpreting it and the Supreme Court have gotten certain elements of that wrong and we’re going to be asking in the context of this course, what is it that the courts misapprehended or misinterpreted at least according to Congress, and how might Congress have written a statute in a way that’s better to avoid some of those problems. And we’re also going to be asking whether you think the reasoning of the court in those earlier cases was a reasonable reading of the statute under the interpretive understandings that sort of prevailed at the time.
Now, the interpretation of the ADA has certainly evolved thanks to the passage of the 2008 Amendments Act but we’re also going to be looking at sort of the social environment in which disability exists. And it certainly has changed.
I would also mention that one thing that I didn’t mention earlier that I that I really should here – I want to back up for a second and mention – is that the ADA presents a host of ethical issues for both the lawyer and for the healthcare provider. For example, how much privacy do you counsel your patients / client to go with if you know that maybe there is information that is favorable to a disposition of an accommodation request for your client but that your client might not want to disclose i.e. evidence of some disability that they’re embarrassed to come forward and say that they have. And to what extent does the duty of candor conflict with the duties of privacy and what evidence should you present, given the fact that you always want the patient or client to be the person that’s sort of in that final decision-maker’s seat, because that’s ethically our jobs, right? Whether we are lawyers or health care professionals, ultimately the patient or the client has the right to make decisions regarding their care or their legal representation and to the extent that you the health care professional are called upon to provide documentation, you may be confronting ethical issues regarding what positions to take in terms of what information to disclose or not disclose.
There are a couple of ways that I teach the course. I give a few video lectures and so you’ll see those. And I also do hypothetical scenarios, so I have written out some very realistic, true-to-life scenarios where you are in the role of the decision-maker and you’re given a set of facts and circumstances and told “ok, what are you going do about this”. That’s sort of the bulk of the course is taken up with those simulations.
I really believe, very strongly in the value of learning by doing. I could sit and talk into a webcam for twenty, thirty minutes but it’s my firm belief that you won’t learn as much if I do that, than if I gave you a chance to actually apply these particular skills in context and exactly when the skill is being taught so you’re able to get some real-time feedback.
That said, as I said, there are some lectures that are really heavy material. Particularly when we get to things like Department of Justice interpretations of the statute that can be really thorny even for experienced lawyers. Even if you’re a very experienced lawyer, if you’re not experienced this particular area of the law, some of the stuff can get really complex and confusing, so that’s that.
The response papers that you see sort of bulleted on the slide ask you to respond to those hypotheticals. They also on occasion as you to consider a sort of the social and cultural background of disability that we talked about earlier and ask you to consider what inherent biases both implicit and explicit exist in society that inform the discussions that we have around the issue of disability itself.
The discussion boards, what I generally do there is I give you a question that will sort of reflect the theme of the week, whatever that theme is. So, I will ask you to chime in on whether you think the cases were rightly decided or what you think the social considerations are that led the court to a certain decision, or whether you think that a statute could have been better drafted to avoid an interpretative problem or what interpretive modality you think a court should use given a particular set of circumstances. I’ll also ask you to get some practice applying the principles of statutory interpretation to those unique scenarios.
The final exam for the course is sort of hybrid of all of that. It’s a long, fairly involved hypo that covers everything that we’ve learned in the course. It asks students to bring to bear all of the statutory interpretation skills that they’ve learned, but also to bring to bear their newly acquired doctrinal knowledge. When I write these scenarios, I try to write them in such a way that they are – dare I say- entertaining and fun because I want scenarios that will really get you thinking and make you struggle in a good way with the hard work of doing statutory interpretation.
Now when I say struggle please don’t think “oh my gosh, this is going to be impossibly difficult”. It’s not. But you may find that some of the answers, from a social, moral, ethical perspective may not be as easy to arrive at as you would like. And your ability to reconcile that and come to a resolution that is both faithful to the statute and faithful to the principles that you think are important will be at issue there.
Let me just say one other thing which is that I really think this material is cutting-edge. We live in a time where civil rights is a hot topic in the news and civil liberties is a hot topic in the news. I come at it from the perspective that the more that somebody knows about federal civil rights legislation, the more they are going to be able to participate knowledgeably in those discussions. Certainly, for something like the ADA if you end up in on the wrong side of the V – what lawyers say, meaning the wrong side of the V.S sign, being sued, it’s not going to be a pleasant experience for you and the penalties for non-compliance with federal civil rights laws can be substantial. So, my hope is not only will you learn the skill of statutory interpretation and acquire an appreciation for what I think is a really, beautifully-nuanced area of law that allows for creative lawyering on the lawyer side of the things, but also some creative medicine in terms of how you present the evidence that your patient is going to need medically to get what they need it really provides some wonderful opportunities for creativity and for honest discussion. And with that, I look forward to your questions.
Thank you, wonderful. Thank you, Professor Czerwonka.
Again, it’s as mentioned if you have any questions please submit them into the Q&A box and we will address them during our Q&A session at the end. So for now, we will go to Claudette and she will highlight some of the application and admissions process for the program – so Claudette.
Thanks Annie, and welcome everyone. We are currently accepting applications for our January 15th start date. We encourage you to get your application in as early as possible since the holidays can often cause delays with obtaining transcripts and letters of recommendations. The admissions committee reviews applications every five to ten business days and sometimes sooner, so you won’t have to wait long for a decision.
There is no a GMAT, GRE or LSAT requirement for the applicants. Also, there is no residence required and no reason to attend campus unless you choose to attend your own graduation. In order to apply to the Master of Arts, applicants as I mentioned before, must have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited institution in any discipline. For the Master of Laws program, a Juris Doctor or a Bachelors of Laws degree is required. There is an online application available, so if you intend to apply, please contact Anne or I directly, and we will send over the link to the online application system – it’s called Apply Yourself – along with the detailed application instructions and our federal student loan school code.
Once you’ve completed your application form, you will upload your resume and professional statement and then request two letters of recommendations or academic letters of recommendation. All official transcripts are to be sent either electronically or by mail. The application process usually takes around two to three weeks. Also, if your GPA is less than 2.7 or you have a foreign-issued degree, please contact myself or Anne to discuss any additional materials that may be required for admission. Before starting your application, it is best to reach out to your enrollment advisors – again, myself or Anne, to make the process more seamless and provide you with support. Thank you.
All right. Thank you, Claudette. So now, I’ve been seeing some questions come through during the webinar, so let’s get right to the Q&A session and I’ll read out the questions from the audience and depending on the question we’ll have Professor Czerwonka or Anne or Claudette to address. If we can’t get through all the questions today our advisors will be sure to follow up and address those outstanding questions with you individually.
Let’s start with the first question. Professor, you were talking about there’s different scenarios in the discussions as part of the course. Would you be able to provide an example of the theme? Just a teaser to a theme or case that will be discussed as part of the course?
Sure, I can give you one of the scenarios, that isn’t sort of an exam scenario. One of the scenarios involves a young woman who works for a restaurant as a hostess and she goes on a family vacation with her family in Binghamton and she gets into a car accident the car goes down an embankment. She’s got some brain damage as a result. She’s hit her head, got some injuries and the scenario sort of revolves around whether those injuries qualify as disabilities within the meaning of the statute and whether her employer, the restaurant is or is not legally obligated to make those the accommodations that she’s requesting. Does that answer the question?
Yep, I think that’s a good example. And then now question for Anne, what are some of the advantages to the having the LL.M. and M.A. split?
Well first, the courses. So, the M.A students take the same curriculum that our LL.M. students would take which means that our M.A students are getting a practical legal education and our LL.M. students are getting the perspective of high-level healthcare professionals.
Secondly, I would say the networking opportunities. Our LL.M. and M.A students attend the core curriculum together and it creates a really dynamic peer-to-peer discussion which enables our students to view topics from a variety of different angles.
Finally, by offering only one course at a time we can focus on you, our students, instead of trying to juggle too many moving parts so this adds to the student experience overall.
I’m actually going to jump in here and just add that when I taught bioethics last semester and I was thinking that you know, with some of the controversial issues that we’d probably have really good discussions but even with my high expectations the discussions were fascinatingly robust and students got right down to business and tackled those controversial issues with no problem and engaged in really open and spirited dialogue with each other and it was nice to see both the legal professionals and the health care professionals talking with each other rather than across from each other.
Great, thank you. Now this question’s quite specific because Professor Czerwonka is really here to talk about the course – the ADA course – and I was wondering though, based of your experience with other courses and overall, the program would you be able to speak to how the degree or how the program curriculum can help somebody who is already in an in-house counsel in terms of their day-to-day activities?
Sure, I mean I have a faculty perspective on that and I’m sure Anne from an enrollment management perspective can also offer her perspective but from where I sit, the real advantage is that you will get a very, very nuanced view of health care law and of particular facets of health care law that I don’t think you can find in any other program of any other types. You get a particular view of these issues that is informed by the scholarship and research and the best practices of a legal education team which is also informed by the practical knowledge that health care professionals bring to it. But I think the programs here also give you an additional mark of distinction in that you’ve delved more deeply into a topic than one would ordinarily be able to encounter anywhere else. It also shows the seriousness with which you take the subject matter. Not that any of you don’t take it seriously. You’re obviously here which indicates that you are serious, but it is an objective indicator that you’ve taken the time to really, truly become an expert on these really cutting-edge areas of law and health policy.
I absolutely agree with that point as well and I feel, having spoken to some of our program graduates that they’ve been really empowered by the knowledge that they’ve learned in the program. It reflects very well on them with their current organization, and often their organization is a part of their learning and coaching them from the sidelines and really egging them on.
And I actually, I would like to add that on your dashboard there is a box called a Resource List and I have linked out the past webinar where we’ve invited a couple of the students and share their experience from the program in speaking to how they are applying to their work as well, so welcome you guys to look at that after the webinar.
Now on to the next question and this is more specifically for the ADA course. Mary would like to know – do you cover content that’s related to the geriatric patient and chronic disabilities?
Not specifically, although most of the content that deals with the ADA is generally applicable and we don’t see anything that’s particularly written within the statute to deal with the geriatric population but certainly some of the cases that we’re going to be discussing and some of the rules of law that we’re going to be applying apply very clearly to the geriatric population.
Thank you. This is more about the logistics of the classes that the audience would like to know – How is it – because it’s an online platform – is it archived, is it scheduled, how does that work in terms of classes week-to-week?
Do one of the course managers want to take that or do you want me to take it?
I think if you would be able to speak to it from your course and your experience with other courses, that’ll be good.
So, the way that it generally works is in the online environment, you have your week-to-week module but only one module is active at a time and your access to certain parts of the module will be conditioned on your completion of earlier elements of that module.
So, for instance, in week 1 I have a discussion question and then and then some other work that’s posted there. Well you’re not able to see those hypos, those scenarios, until you’ve participated in the discussion. So, it is a really very structured program in the sense that you have deadlines within weeks to meet in terms of when I expect you to have your discussion questions done, when I expect you to have your response papers in, and certainly by the time we get to the final, when I expect you to have your final exam submitted. But within the sort of confines of those deadlines, if I have an assignment that starts on day 1 of a week it’s due on day 4, well, in theory you could submit that on day 2 and move on to the remainder of the content as long as you’re meeting all of those internal deadlines within the course. So, there is a certain amount of structure, but there’s also a certain amount of flexibility to do the work within each module within certain guidelines that ensure that you are actually keeping up with the class.
Great, thank you. There’s also a question about how does the understanding of social cultural disabilities assist in the determination of eligibility for protection in the context of ADA?
So, there are I mean this is a complicated question that I spend a lot of time with in the course, but I think in terms of looking at how society has understood this ability both as a medical and a social construct, having an understanding of that is really crucial to getting inside those judges’ heads and getting inside the head of the finder of fact. You’ll see in particular, in the early cases in particular, before the 2008 Amendments Act, there are some social assumptions that sort of underlie the interpretive legwork that’s being done both by the administrative agencies and by the courts. And as the view of disability has changed from a group of people to be felt sorry for versus a group of people that are entitled to full and equal dignity even in the context of law, you see what, for me, I would argue is a fundamental shift in the way that the courts and the administrative agencies have understood the statute and it’s also reflected in the changes that Congress made in 2008 based on the changing social environment. Keep in mind, any anti-discrimination law is largely going to be based on whatever that social environment is, because if you’re looking to ameliorate social ill, in this case disability discrimination, you have to be equipped with an understanding of the contours of that wrong.
Perfect thank you. This is it’s quite one question so let me just try to read that and see.
I think she’s asking how do you deal specifically with application of ADA and regulations for people in different states and … will this topic be covered from the aspect of interpretation of regulation
I’m thinking that they’re talking about from different states?
So, the Americans with Disabilities as a federal statute sets a floor under something – there’s something called the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution. Basically, what that Clause says is that any federal law is going to take precedence over any contrary state law to the extent that they are less protective or imposed, a lesser degree of regulation. So, the Americans with Disabilities Act deals with sort of the federal minimum that folks are required to do in the context of disability discrimination and accommodation. Individual states are always free to provide for enhanced, different or more robust protections than the ADA provides, but those state law considerations are beyond the subject matter of the course. We are dealing exclusively with the federal law
Thank you. And Sabirah, if that doesn’t answer your question properly, let me know, you can submit that specific question again and we can try to address it again.
Hold on, Annie. I’m actually seeing that the question deals also with special education law, IEPs, the application of the ADA. Let me just quickly answer that as well.
The things that you’re asking about when we’re talking about special education laws, IEP and the ADA as they apply to students in different states – when we are dealing with students enrolled in K-12 instructional settings, in other words, elementary or secondary schools, those students are actually going to be largely covered by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act which is sort of a different animal from the ADA. Of course, there are ADA considerations with respect to architecture and some other unique considerations, but education law is not the primary focus of this course
Thank you. Anne or Claudette, maybe you can speak to the length of the program for LL.M. and also for the M.A?
Hi. It’s Claudette. So, you were asking for the length of the program for both the LL.M. and the M.A.?
For the M.A. program, it takes two years to complete the program – total of 30 credits and 11 courses. For the LL.M. program which is the Master of Laws in Health Law and Policy, it takes 18 months, 25 credits and 9 courses. Eighteen months to complete. Sorry about that.
Thank you, and maybe adding to that in terms of the timeline, maybe Claudette you can speak to how long does it take to find out if you’ve been accepted to the program?
Sure, it could take anywhere from five to ten business days once the application has been submitted. The admissions committee will review and get back to you as sometimes as soon as it comes in or anywhere from five to ten business days. A decision can however be made within one business day.
That was a question Annie?
Yep, just adding to the existing question. Perfect thank you.
If we could Claudette, while you’re here, if you could kind of speak to the application requirement in terms of do they have to submit everything at the same time or is it something that they can kind of submit to you one by one?
Perfect good question. We strongly encourage you to start the application as soon as you know that you’re interested in starting the program. Doesn’t matter which term – January, May or September. Next, what I would recommend that you do is request the transcripts and recommenders – request a transcript, also get the names and email address of your recommenders as they are often outside of your control, so it’s best to request those items first. Once you do that, you’ll upload your resume, professional statement and you can do this by logging onto the application system and load them. So in short, you need to do all the requirements at once, but you should be able to complete them in less than three weeks. We strongly suggest that you hold yourself accountable and set deadlines to stay on track and we do follow up with you weekly.
Professor Czerwonka, maybe you can speak to this in terms of how, the method that the course is going to be taught? Someone is asking is this going to be using the Socratic method?
Okay so, let me just give an introduction for those that may not be familiar with how the Socratic method works. Socratic method is a style of teaching whereby I stand at the front of the room or in a virtual sort of lecture hall environment and just start calling on people, called involuntarily to answer questions on the spot. Because of A.) the way this program is structured and B.) the nature of the material of this course, I do not teach that way in the LL.M. and M.A programs.
Thank you. Now there’s a couple questions about the cost of the program. Perhaps Anne, you can speak to that.
Yeah absolutely. So, the program is currently estimated at $1,292 per credit hour so that would make the M.A. program approximately $38,760 and the LL.M. program approximately $32,300.
Perfect, thank you. In terms of the outcome of the program, I think Professor Czerwonka has kind of mentioned that as part of the outcome of the course. Perhaps maybe you can speak to overall the program would you have any feedback from of faculty perspective on those who are taking the program what the outcome of the overall will be like?
So, from my perspective and I’m sure our enrollment and course liaisons have perspectives of their own, but students that have taken my classes report that they come away from them feeling better equipped to engage professionally. They have learned things that they hadn’t considered before or even if they have considered those things before that they are looking at them in new ways because of those dialogues between and among professionals – both health care professionals and legal professionals and those students do report overwhelming a degree of satisfaction. I had one student tell me that not only was it informative in his professional life but that it would inform some of what he did in his personal life as well. Now, that’s sort of … It’s a wonderful thing when a student has an experience like that and that’s the that’s the kind of an environment that my co-faculty and I really try to cultivate.
Perfect, thank you. Now, is there any other question for the team here from the audience?
If not, I am going to remind everyone that this webinar is being recorded and if there is any further questions, by all means, let us know by contacting us. As I mentioned, because it is recorded, we are able to send you the recording link afterwards and you can review the whole content for anyone who has missed anything and then again, any questions from there keep us posted, let us know and Claudette or Anne will be able to address that with you individually afterwards. Their information is up on the screen right now. I’ll keep this on for a little bit of as we wrap up, and but before that I want to again just thank everyone for the time and joining us today and especially want to thank Professor Czerwonka and also the advisors in speaking with us today.
As mentioned, our next term does start in January 2018, so it is encouraged that you start your application soon just so that you can complete and submit for review ahead of all the holiday events. If you have any questions, again, feel free to contact your advisor that you’ve been working with. Their information is on the screen here and there’s also a little link button at the bottom of navigation bar that you are welcome to just click and book a telephone appointment well in advance. So, thank you everyone.
Anne, Claudette or Professor Czerwonka did you want to say anything before we close up?
I would just like to add that it’s been a pleasure to be with you this evening. I hope I’ve given you a taste of the good things that are to come in the context of the program and I hope to see many of you in my classes.
Right, thank you. Anne, Claudette, anything from you before we close off?
I just want to say thank you so much for joining us today and if we didn’t get an opportunity to address your question today, we will definitely reach out to after the webinar and provide you with a response.
And I do look forward to work with each and every one of you that are interested in our program.
Thank you again for attending all.
Thank you and have a wonderful rest of the day. Bye now